Fawad, 33, is selected as the second spinner ahead of Ashton Agar, who broke the record for the highest score by a Test number 11 against England in 2013.
Voges, 35, was voted the Sheffield Shield Player of the Year, having made 1,358 runs at an average of 104.46.
The first of five Ashes Tests begins in Cardiff on Wednesday, 8 July.
Prior to that, Australia will play a two-match series against West Indies, beginning on 5 June.
"Adam Voges and Fawad Ahmed had sensational seasons at domestic level and their performances just couldn't be ignored," said national selector Rod Marsh.
"We believe that both can play important roles in the side if required."
Fawad claimed asylum in Australia in 2010 and his citizenship application was fast-tracked three years later. He has played in three one-day internationals and two Twenty20 matches for Australia, but is yet to make his Test debut.
Michael Clarke will captain the Test side having led Australia to their fifth World Cup title with victory over New Zealand in his final one-day international on Sunday.
Bowler Ryan Harris will not travel to the West Indies as his wife is pregnant with their first child, but has been included in the Ashes squad.
Australia squad in full: Michael Clarke (c), Steve Smith, (vc) Fawad Ahmed, Brad Haddin (wk), Josh Hazlewood, Ryan Harris, Mitchell Johnson, Nathan Lyon, Mitchell Marsh, Shaun Marsh, Peter Nevill (wk), Chris Rogers, Peter Siddle, Mitchell Starc, Adam Voges, David Warner, Shane Watson.
First Test: Cardiff - 8-12 July
Second Test: Lord's - 16-20 July
Third Test: Edgbaston - 29 July - 2 August
Fourth Test: Trent Bridge - 6-10 August
Fifth Test: The Oval - 20-24 August
Source - BBC